Dieter; Birbaumer, Niels; Gruzelier, John; Jamieson,
Graham A.; Kotchoubey, Boris; Kübler, Andrea; Lehmann,
Dietrich; Miltner, Wolfgang H. R.; Ott, Ulrich; Pütz,
Peter; Sammer, Gebhard; Strauch, Inge; Strehl, Ute;
Wackermann, Jiri; Weiss, Thomas (2005) Center for Psychobiology and Behavioral Medicine, Department
of Psychology, University of Giessen, Giessen, Germany.
Psychobiology of Altered States of Consciousness. Psychological Bulletin. 2005 Jan Vol 131(1) 98-127
ABSTRACT The article reviews the current knowledge regarding altered states of consciousness (ASC) (a) occurring spontaneously, (b) evoked by physical and physiological stimulation, (c) induced by psychological means, and (d) caused by diseases. The emphasis is laid on psychological and neurobiological approaches. The phenomenological analysis of the multiple ASC resulted in 4 dimensions by which they can be characterized: activation, awareness span, self-awareness, and sensory dynamics. The neurophysiological approach revealed that the different states of consciousness are mainly brought about by a compromised brain structure, transient changes in brain dynamics (disconnectivity), and neurochemical and metabolic processes. Besides these severe alterations, environmental stimuli, mental practices, and techniques of self-control can also temporarily alter brain functioning and conscious experience.
de Wachter, D., Lange,
A., Vanderlinden, J., Pouw, J., Strubbe, E. (1998) The influence of daily stress on dissociative phenomena. Tijdschrift voor Psychiatrie, 40, 335-343.
ABSTRACT Studied the relationship between
acute daily stress over 3 months and dissociative
phenomena. Human Ss: 52 male and female Belgian adults
(aged 25-53 yrs). Stress was measured at the beginning
of naturally occurring acute crisis situations and
3 mo later. Tests used: The Daily Problem List, the
Dissociation Questionnaire (J. Vanderlinden et al,
1992), and the General Health Questionnaire.
Watson D. (2003)
Department of Psychology, University
of Iowa, Iowa City 52242-1407, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org Investigating the construct validity of the dissociative
taxon: stability analyses of normal and pathological dissociation.
J Abnorm Psychol. 2003 May;112(2):298-305.
ABSTRACT Research has suggested the existence
of a pathological dissociative taxon. However, relatively
little is known about this taxon. This study examined
the 2-month retest stability of this taxon--together
with other measures of dissociation and the Big Five--in
a sample of 465 undergraduates. Contrary to expectation,
taxon scores were only modestly stable and were substantially
less stable than the other measures, including continuous
indicators of dissociation. Furthermore, most individuals
who were identified as taxon members at one assessment
were classified as nonmembers at the other. These
results challenge the existence of a pathological
dissociative taxon. More generally, these data demonstrate
that statistically identified taxa need to be explicated
through the normal process of construct validation.
Waelde, Lynn C. PhD;
Cheryl Koopman, PhD; Jill Rierdan, PhD; David Spiegel,
MD (2001) Symptoms of Acute Stress Disorder
and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Follow ing Exposure
to Disastrous Flooding Journal of Trauma
and Dissociation; Vol. 2 nr. 2, 37, 2001
ABSTRACT Symptoms of Acute Stress Disorder
and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Follow ing Exposure
to Disastrous Flooding flood related threat and losses;
74 of these persons completed a one-year follow- up
assessing PTSD symptoms. Results showed that threat
and loss were both significantly related to ASD symptoms.
Exposure to losses and ASD symptoms, but not threat,
predicted the development of PTSD symptoms. These
results suggest that stressor characteristics, such
as loss and threat, may be differentially related
to shorter and longer-term trauma responses. These
results extend previous research by showing that ASD
symptoms predict those of PTSD among disaster survivors
and that stressor characteristics together with acute
symptoms predict longterm distress.
Ken R. Welburn, PhD,
George A. Fraser, MD, Shelley A. Jordan, PhD, Colin Cameron,
MD, Lisa M. Webb, PhD, Dayle Raine, RN (2003) Discriminating Dissociative Identity Disorder from
Schizophrenia and Feigned Dissociation on Psychological
Tests and Structured Interview Journal
of Trauma and Dissociation; Vol. 4 nr. 2, 109, 2003
ABSTRACT Objective: The purpose of this study
was to evaluate the relative efficacy of a number
of psychological tests and interviews in discriminating
dissociative identity disorder (DID) from feigned
dissociation and schizophrenia. Method: Three measures
of dissociation (SCID-D, DES, SDQ-5) two personality
measures (MMPI-2, Millon-III) and a brief measure
of hypnotic susceptibility (Spiegel & Spiegel’s Eye-Roll
Sign) were assessed for their ability to differentiate
these diagnostic groups. Results: Results indicate
that the SCID-D was clearly the most efficacious instrument
in discriminating DID from schizophrenia and from
feigned dissociation. The DES-Taxon and the SDQ-5
were adequate in screening pathological dissociation
from schizophrenia but were less discriminative of
feigned dissociation. The commonly used personality
inventories were unable to detect feigned dissociation
and the DID group tended to have higher elevations
on scales measuring psychotic symptoms than did the
schizophrenic group. The eye-roll sign discriminated
feigned dissociation from those with dissociative
disorders. Conclusions: Structured interviews such
as the SCID-D, although resource consuming, are essential
in comprehensive assessment of dissociative disorders.
Comprehensive assessment of psychotic disorders should
include some measure of dissociation.
A, Lambert MT, Petty F. (2000) Posttraumatic stress disorder, dissociation,
and trauma exposure in depressed and nondepressed veterans.
J Nerv Ment Dis 2000 Aug;188(8):505-9
ABSTRACT Increasing evidence indicates that
exposure to traumatic events predisposes individuals
to depressive symptoms as well as to emotional and
psychophysiological symptoms covered under the diagnostic
criteria of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).
Trauma exposure history and PTSD symptoms would, therefore,
be expected to be more common in a depressed population
than in a nondepressed group. To examine the association
between trauma exposure (trauma load), dissociation,
and depression, we administered clinical interviews
and an assessment package derived from existing instruments
(including the Dissociative Experiences Scale; DES)
to 101 veteran patients with histories of clinically
significant depression and a comparison group of 49
medical patients with no history of depression. The
depression group had experienced significantly higher
numbers of traumatic incidents, had higher average
DES scores, and more frequently met diagnostic criteria
for PTSD. The findings support the argument for a
causal or predisposing effect of trauma in the expression
of clinically significant depression.
(1995) Recovered memories of abuse in women with documented child sexual victimization histories. J Trauma Stress. 1995 Oct;8(4):649-73.
ABSTRACT This study provides evidence that some adults who claim to have recovered memories of sexual abuse recall actual events that occurred in childhood. One hundred twenty-nine women with documented histories of sexual victimization in childhood were interviewed and asked about abuse history. Seventeen years following the initial report of the abuse, 80 of the women recalled the victimization. One in 10 women (16% of those who recalled the abuse) reported that at some time in the past they had forgotten about the abuse. Those with a prior period of forgetting--the women with "recovered memories"--were younger at the time of abuse and were less likely to have received support from their mothers than the women who reported that they had always remembered their victimization. The women who had recovered memories and those who had always remembered had the same number of discrepancies when their accounts of the abuse were compared to the reports from the early 1970s.
Christopher L; Haines, Janet; Sale, Ian M. (2003) Psychophysiological and psychological correlates
of dissociation in a case of dissociative identity disorder.
Journal of Trauma and Dissociation (ISSN: 1529-9732),
v. 4, no. 1, pp. 101-118 (2003).
ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to examine
the psychological and psychophysiological mechanisms
that underlie dissociative experiences in dissociative
disorders. A four-stage, personalized guided imagery
methodology was used to recreate the psychological
and psychophysiological responses associated with
two dissociative episodes experienced by a 25 year
old, single female diagnosed with Dissociative Identity
Disorder. The responses to these two dissociative
episodes were compared with a stressful experience
and an emotionally neutral event. The results demonstrated
a reduction in psychophysiological arousal associated
with the experience of dissociation during times of
intense distress accompanied by relevant alterations
in psychological response. It was concluded that the
experience of dissociation served to protect this
individual from extreme distress and, therefore, functioned
as a protective mechanism. [Author Abstract] KEY WORDS:
Dissociation, dissociative identity disorder, imagery,
Eliezer; Margalit, Chaim (Haim); Van der Hart, Onno.
(2002) Combat-induced dissociative amnesia: review
and case example of generalized dissociative amnesia. Journal of Trauma and Dissociation (ISSN: 1529-9732),
v. 3, no. 2, pp. 35-55 (2002).
ABSTRACTDissociative amnesia following combat
trauma in various wars has been extensively documented.
In this article, we describe theoretical constructs
related to dissociative amnesia, and integrate them
with clinical practice through the presentation of
a case. Although there is ample documentation of this
condition in combat soldiers, in actual clinical practice
such dissociative amnesia is probably underdiagnosed
and undertreated. This may be detrimental to therapeutic
progress, given the fact that ongoing memory deficits
constitute one of the core symptoms of chronic PTSD
in combat veterans. As illustrated in our case example
of combat-induced generalized dissociative amnesia,
combat-induced amnesia may also reflect previously
existing dissociated traumatic memories that become
reactivated during trauma. In this case, intensive
treatment using hypnosis within a larger therapeutic
milieu involved both the uncovering and processing
of recent dissociated traumatic experiences, and,
by necessity, other traumas of the past.
Scott N; Van der Kolk, Bessel A; Burbridge, Jennifer
A; Fisler, Rita E; Kradin, Richard. (1999) Phenotype of blood lymphocytes in PTSD suggests
chronic immune activation. Psychosomatics (ISSN: 0033-3182), v. 40, no. 3,
pp. 222-225 (May-June 1999).
ABSTRACT Patients with PTSD have a past history
of extremely stressful experience and often present
with somatic complaints. Peripheral blood lymphocytes
(PBL) of patients with PTSD associated with a history
of childhood sexual abuse were examined for changes
in immune phenotype. The ratio of CD45RO-positive
to CD45RA-positive lymphocytes (CD45RO/CD45RA), an
index of lymphocyte activation, was higher (P = 0.04)
in the PTSD subjects than in the normal subjects.
No differences were observed for the number of PBL
or the representation of major T, B, or NK lymphocyte
subsets. These findings suggest the presence of increased
lymphocyte activation in the PBL of patients with
W, Kruse J. (2003) Klinik Wersbach, Klinik fur Psychosomatische
Medizin und Psychotherapie, email@example.com
Nervenarzt. 2003 Nov;74(11):972-6.
Pervasive personality disorders have been shown to
be long-term sequelae of cumulative childhood physical
and sexual traumatization. This finding is not reflected
in DSM-IV and ICD-10 classifications where post-traumatic
stress disorder is confined to intrusions, avoidance,
numbing, and hyperarousal. However, there is growing
evidence that trauma etiology should be taken into
account in planning treatment for personality disorders.
It is not yet clear whether childhood traumatization
is more strongly associated with borderline personality
disorder than with other personality disorders. The
finding of a substantial overlap between borderline
personality disorder and dissociative identity disorder
gives rise to discussions concerning the relationship
of these two pathologies.
Lilienfeld SO, Garb HN, Nezworski MT (2000) Department of Psychology, University
of Texas at El Paso, 79968, USA. The Rorschach test in clinical diagnosis: a
critical review, with a backward look at Garfield (1947) J Clin Psychol 2000 Mar;56(3):441-8
The present article comments on a classic study by
Garfield (1947) then reviews research on the Rorschach
and psychiatric diagnoses. Despite a few positive
findings, the Rorschach has demonstrated little validity
as a diagnostic tool. Deviant verbalizations and bad
form on the Rorschach, and indices based on these
variables, are related to Schizophrenia and perhaps
to Bipolar Disorder and Schizotypal Personality Disorder.
Patients with Borderline Personality Disorder also
seem to give an above-average number of deviant verbalizations.
Otherwise the Rorschach has not shown a well-demonstrated
relationship to these disorders or to Major Depressive
Disorder, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), anxiety
disorders other than PTSD, Dissociative Identity Disorder,
Dependent, Narcissistic, or Antisocial Personality
Disorders, Conduct Disorder, or psychopathy.