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Van IJzendoorn, M.H.; Schuengel, C., Bakermans-Kranenburg, M.J., (1999)
Universiteit Leiden, The Netherlands Development & Psychopathology.
Attachment and loss: Frightening maternal behavior linking unresolved loss and disorganized infant attachment
Journal of Clinical and Consulting Psychology, 67, 54-63.
ABSTRACT: Main and Hesse's (1990) model in which frightening (threatening, frightened, or dissociated) parental behavior explains why infants of parents with unresolved loss develop disorganized attachment relationships was tested. Unresolved loss using the Adult Attachment Interview in a nonclinical middle-class sample of 85 mothers who had experienced the loss of someone important was assessed. Disorganized attachment was examined in the Strange Situation. Parental behavior was recorded during 2 2-hr home visits. The model applied to mothers with currently insecure attachment representations. Secure mothers with unresolved loss displayed less frightening behavior than other mothers, and unresolved loss in secure mothers did not predict disorganized attachment of their infants. Frightening behavior predicted infant disorganized attachment irrespective of maternal security.
van IJzendoorn, M.H., Schuengel, C., Bakermans-Kranenburg, M.J.  (1998)
Universiteit Leiden, The Netherlands Development & Psychopathology.
Disorganized attachment in early childhood: Meta-analysis of precursors, concomitants, and sequelae
Development and Psychopathology, 11, 225-249.
ABSTRACT During the past ten years nearly 80 studies on disorganized attachment involving more than 6,000 infant-parent dyads have been carried out. The current series of meta-analyses have established the reliability and discriminant validity of disorganized infant attachment. Although disorganized attachment behavior is necessarily difficult to observe and often subtle, many researchers have managed to become reliable coders. Furthermore, disorganized attachment shows modest short- and long-term stability, in particular in middle class environments, and it is not just a concomitant of constitutional, temperamental, or physical child problems. The predictive validity of disorganized attachment is established in terms of problematic stress management, the elevated risk of externalizing problem behavior, and even the tendency of disorganized infants to show dissociative behavior later in life. In normal, middle class families, about 15% of the infants develop disorganized attachment behavior. In other social contexts and in clinical groups this percentage may become twice or even three times higher (for example in the case of maltreatment). Although the importance of disorganized attachment for developmental psychopathology is evident, the search for the mechanisms leading to disorganization has just started. Frightening parental behavior may play an important role but it does not seem to be the only causal factor involved in the emergence of disorganized attachment.

Ikonen, P.  (1999)   
Paying attention to the mute part
Scandinavian Psychoanalytic Review, 22, 1-18.

ABSTRACT This paper sets out to investigate some implications of the autonomy of the mind. The setting down of experiences are described as taking place in a "mute part," a part of the mind which in itself remains silent. Following this, the author explores the self-regulating function of the psyche, differentiating dissociative self-regulation from integrative. The author describes some implications of these thoughts for the psychoanalytic method of treatment, and stresses the subjective value of self-regulation.

Irwin HJ (1998)
Department of Psychology, University of New England, Armidale, NSW, Australia.
Attitudinal predictors of dissociation: hostility and powerlessness.
J Psychol 1998 Jul;132(4):389-400

Ishikura R, Tashiro N. (2002)   
Department of Neuropsychiatry, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.
Frustration and fulfillment of needs in dissociative and conversion disorders.
Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 2002 Aug;56(4):381-90

ABSTRACT We reviewed all patients with dissociative disorders (nine patients with dissociative amnesia or dissociative fugue) and conversion disorders (10 patients) who were admitted and treated during the past 15 years. Needs frustrated at the appearance of the symptoms and those fulfilled at discharge were studied in both groups using Maslow's hierarchy of needs. The patients of both groups who encountered troubles in their life events were found to have frustrated needs. These symptoms tended to be accompanied more often by frustrations regarding a 'need for love' in the dissociative disorders group and by frustration in the need for 'self-esteem and self-actualization' in the conversion disorders group. In addition, needs of lower orders were already threatened at onset in many patients. The symptoms disappeared in patients in whom the situation completely improved (needs were fulfilled), but the symptoms were alleviated or unchanged in those in whom the problems remained unresolved.
Jang KL, Paris J, Zweig-Frank H, Livesley WJ.   (1998)
Department of Psychiatry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.
Twin study of dissociative experience.
J Nerv Ment Dis 1998 Jun;186(6):345-351

I. Janssen, L. Krabbendam, M. Bak, M. Hanssen, W. Vollebergh, R. Graaf, J. Os (2004)  
Childhood abuse as a risk factor for psychotic experiences   
Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Volume 109 Issue 1 Page 38 - January 2004 doi:10.1046/j.0001-690X.2003.00217.x

ABSTRACT Objective: To examine the hypothesis that individuals from the general population who report childhood abuse are at increased risk of developing positive psychotic symptoms. Method: Data were derived from a general population sample of 4045 subjects aged 18-64 years. First ever onset of positive psychotic symptoms at 2-year follow-up were assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and additional clinical interviews if necessary. Childhood abuse was assessed at baseline. Results: Baseline reported childhood abuse predicted development of positive psychotic symptoms associated with need for care [odds ratio (OR) = 11.5, 95% CI 2.6-51.6]. This association remained after adjustment for demographic variables, reported risk factors and presence of any lifetime psychiatric diagnosis at baseline (OR = 7.3, 95% CI 1.1-49.0). Conclusion: The results suggest that early childhood trauma increases the risk for positive psychotic symptoms. This finding fits well with recent models that suggest that early adversities may lead to psychological and biological changes that increase psychosis vulnerability.

I. Jaranson JM, Butcher J, Halcon L, Johnson DR, Robertson C, Savik K, Spring M, Westermeyer J. (2004)  
Somali and Oromo Refugees: Correlates of Torture and Trauma History.   
Am J Public Health. 2004 Apr;94(4):591-598.

ABSTRACTOBJECTIVES: This cross-sectional, community-based, epidemiological study characterized Somali and Ethiopian (Oromo) refugees in Minnesota to determine torture prevalence and associated problems. METHODS: A comprehensive questionnaire was developed, then administered by trained ethnic interviewers to a nonprobability sample of 1134. Measures assessed torture techniques; traumatic events; and social, physical, and psychological problems, including posttraumatic stress symptoms. RESULTS: Torture prevalence ranged from 25% to 69% by ethnicity and gender, higher than usually reported. Unexpectedly, women were tortured as often as men. Torture survivors had more health problems, including posttraumatic stress. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights the need to recognize torture in African refugees, especially women, identify indicators of posttraumatic stress in torture survivors, and provide additional resources to care for tortured refugees.

Jones B, Heard H, Startup M, Swales M, Williams JM, Jones RS (1999)   
Department of Psychology, Bath Mental Health NHS Trust.
Autobiographical memory and dissociation in borderline personality disorder.
Psychol Med 1999 Nov;29(6):1397-404

ABSTRACT . BACKGROUND: This study investigated whether individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD) tend to be overgeneral in their autobiographical recall and whether the extent of their overgeneral recall covaries with their susceptibilities to dissociative experiences, as expected on theoretical grounds. METHODS: Twenty-three patients with BPD and 23 matched controls completed the Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT) and self-report measures of depression, anxiety, trait anger and dissociative experiences. RESULTS: Participants with BPD scored significantly higher than the control group on the measures of depression, anxiety, trait anger, and dissociative experiences and also retrieved significantly more general memories on the AMT. The number of general memories retrieved by the BPD group correlated significantly with their dissociation scores but not with their scores on mood measures. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with BPD have difficulties in recalling specific autobiographical memories. These difficulties are related to their tendency to dissociate and may help them to avoid episodic information that would evoke acutely negative affect.

Joseph, R.  (1999)   
The neurology of traumatic "dissociative" amnesia: Commentary and literature review.
Child Abuse & Neglect, 23, 715-727.

ABSTRACT Reviews the relationship among traumatic emotional stress, hippocampal injury, memory loss, and traumatic (dissociative) amnesia. A survey of the research on emotional trauma, learning, memory loss, glucocosteroid stress hormones, and the hippocampus was conducted, and animal and human studies were reviewed. It is well documented and has been experimentally demonstrated in animals and humans that prolonged and high levels of stress, fear, and arousal commonly induce learning deficits and memory loss ranging from the minimal to the profound. As stress and arousal levels dramatically increase, learning and memory deteriorate in accordance with the classic inverse U-shaped curve. These memory deficits are due to disturbances in hippocampal activation and arousal, and the corticosteroid secretion, which can suppress neural activity associated with learning and memory and induce hippocampal atrophy. Risk and predisposing factors include a history of previous emotional trauma or neurological injury involving the temporal lobe and hippocampus, the repetitive and prolonged nature of the trauma (i.e., sexual abuse), and age and individual differences in baseline arousal and level of cortisol.