M.H.; Schuengel, C., Bakermans-Kranenburg, M.J., (1999) Universiteit Leiden, The Netherlands
Development & Psychopathology. Attachment
and loss: Frightening maternal behavior linking unresolved
loss and disorganized infant attachment Journal
of Clinical and Consulting Psychology, 67, 54-63.
ABSTRACT: Main and Hesse's (1990) model in
which frightening (threatening, frightened, or dissociated)
parental behavior explains why infants of parents
with unresolved loss develop disorganized attachment
relationships was tested. Unresolved loss using the
Adult Attachment Interview in a nonclinical middle-class
sample of 85 mothers who had experienced the loss
of someone important was assessed. Disorganized attachment
was examined in the Strange Situation. Parental behavior
was recorded during 2 2-hr home visits. The model
applied to mothers with currently insecure attachment
representations. Secure mothers with unresolved loss
displayed less frightening behavior than other mothers,
and unresolved loss in secure mothers did not predict
disorganized attachment of their infants. Frightening
behavior predicted infant disorganized attachment
irrespective of maternal security.
van IJzendoorn, M.H.,
Schuengel, C., Bakermans-Kranenburg, M.J. (1998) Universiteit Leiden, The Netherlands
Development & Psychopathology. Disorganized
attachment in early childhood: Meta-analysis of precursors,
concomitants, and sequelae Development and Psychopathology, 11, 225-249.
ABSTRACT During the past ten years nearly
80 studies on disorganized attachment involving more
than 6,000 infant-parent dyads have been carried out.
The current series of meta-analyses have established
the reliability and discriminant validity of disorganized
infant attachment. Although disorganized attachment
behavior is necessarily difficult to observe and often
subtle, many researchers have managed to become reliable
coders. Furthermore, disorganized attachment shows
modest short- and long-term stability, in particular
in middle class environments, and it is not just a
concomitant of constitutional, temperamental, or physical
child problems. The predictive validity of disorganized
attachment is established in terms of problematic
stress management, the elevated risk of externalizing
problem behavior, and even the tendency of disorganized
infants to show dissociative behavior later in life.
In normal, middle class families, about 15% of the
infants develop disorganized attachment behavior.
In other social contexts and in clinical groups this
percentage may become twice or even three times higher
(for example in the case of maltreatment). Although
the importance of disorganized attachment for developmental
psychopathology is evident, the search for the mechanisms
leading to disorganization has just started. Frightening
parental behavior may play an important role but it
does not seem to be the only causal factor involved
in the emergence of disorganized attachment.
P. (1999) Paying attention to the mute part Scandinavian Psychoanalytic Review, 22, 1-18.
ABSTRACT This paper sets out to investigate
some implications of the autonomy of the mind. The
setting down of experiences are described as taking
place in a "mute part," a part of the mind
which in itself remains silent. Following this, the
author explores the self-regulating function of the
psyche, differentiating dissociative self-regulation
from integrative. The author describes some implications
of these thoughts for the psychoanalytic method of
treatment, and stresses the subjective value of self-regulation.
HJ (1998) Department of Psychology, University
of New England, Armidale, NSW, Australia. Attitudinal predictors of dissociation: hostility
and powerlessness. J Psychol 1998 Jul;132(4):389-400
R, Tashiro N. (2002) Department of Neuropsychiatry,
Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University,
Fukuoka, Japan. YHD02356@nifty.ne.jp Frustration and fulfillment of needs in dissociative
and conversion disorders. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 2002 Aug;56(4):381-90
ABSTRACT We reviewed all patients with dissociative
disorders (nine patients with dissociative amnesia
or dissociative fugue) and conversion disorders (10
patients) who were admitted and treated during the
past 15 years. Needs frustrated at the appearance
of the symptoms and those fulfilled at discharge were
studied in both groups using Maslow's hierarchy of
needs. The patients of both groups who encountered
troubles in their life events were found to have frustrated
needs. These symptoms tended to be accompanied more
often by frustrations regarding a 'need for love'
in the dissociative disorders group and by frustration
in the need for 'self-esteem and self-actualization'
in the conversion disorders group. In addition, needs
of lower orders were already threatened at onset in
many patients. The symptoms disappeared in patients
in whom the situation completely improved (needs were
fulfilled), but the symptoms were alleviated or unchanged
in those in whom the problems remained unresolved.
Paris J, Zweig-Frank H, Livesley WJ. (1998) Department of Psychiatry, University
of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada. Twin
study of dissociative experience. J Nerv Ment
Dis 1998 Jun;186(6):345-351
Janssen, L. Krabbendam, M. Bak, M. Hanssen, W. Vollebergh,
R. Graaf, J. Os (2004) Childhood abuse as a risk factor for psychotic experiences
Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Volume 109 Issue
1 Page 38 - January 2004 doi:10.1046/j.0001-690X.2003.00217.x
ABSTRACT Objective: To examine the hypothesis
that individuals from the general population who report
childhood abuse are at increased risk of developing
positive psychotic symptoms. Method: Data were derived
from a general population sample of 4045 subjects
aged 18-64 years. First ever onset of positive psychotic
symptoms at 2-year follow-up were assessed using the
Composite International Diagnostic Interview and additional
clinical interviews if necessary. Childhood abuse
was assessed at baseline. Results: Baseline reported
childhood abuse predicted development of positive
psychotic symptoms associated with need for care [odds
ratio (OR) = 11.5, 95% CI 2.6-51.6]. This association
remained after adjustment for demographic variables,
reported risk factors and presence of any lifetime
psychiatric diagnosis at baseline (OR = 7.3, 95% CI
1.1-49.0). Conclusion: The results suggest that early
childhood trauma increases the risk for positive psychotic
symptoms. This finding fits well with recent models
that suggest that early adversities may lead to psychological
and biological changes that increase psychosis vulnerability.
Jaranson JM, Butcher J, Halcon L, Johnson DR, Robertson C, Savik K, Spring M, Westermeyer J.
(2004) Somali and Oromo Refugees: Correlates of Torture and Trauma History.
Am J Public Health. 2004 Apr;94(4):591-598.
ABSTRACTOBJECTIVES: This cross-sectional, community-based, epidemiological study characterized Somali and Ethiopian (Oromo) refugees in Minnesota to determine torture prevalence and associated problems. METHODS: A comprehensive questionnaire was developed, then administered by trained ethnic interviewers to a nonprobability sample of 1134. Measures assessed torture techniques; traumatic events; and social, physical, and psychological problems, including posttraumatic stress symptoms. RESULTS: Torture prevalence ranged from 25% to 69% by ethnicity and gender, higher than usually reported. Unexpectedly, women were tortured as often as men. Torture survivors had more health problems, including posttraumatic stress. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights the need to recognize torture in African refugees, especially women, identify indicators of posttraumatic stress in torture survivors, and provide additional resources to care for tortured refugees.
B, Heard H, Startup M, Swales M, Williams JM, Jones
RS (1999) Department of Psychology, Bath
Mental Health NHS Trust. Autobiographical memory and dissociation in borderline
personality disorder. Psychol Med 1999 Nov;29(6):1397-404
ABSTRACT . BACKGROUND: This study investigated
whether individuals with borderline personality disorder
(BPD) tend to be overgeneral in their autobiographical
recall and whether the extent of their overgeneral
recall covaries with their susceptibilities to dissociative
experiences, as expected on theoretical grounds. METHODS:
Twenty-three patients with BPD and 23 matched controls
completed the Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT) and
self-report measures of depression, anxiety, trait
anger and dissociative experiences. RESULTS: Participants
with BPD scored significantly higher than the control
group on the measures of depression, anxiety, trait
anger, and dissociative experiences and also retrieved
significantly more general memories on the AMT. The
number of general memories retrieved by the BPD group
correlated significantly with their dissociation scores
but not with their scores on mood measures. CONCLUSIONS:
Patients with BPD have difficulties in recalling specific
autobiographical memories. These difficulties are
related to their tendency to dissociate and may help
them to avoid episodic information that would evoke
acutely negative affect.
R. (1999) The neurology of traumatic "dissociative"
amnesia: Commentary and literature review. Child Abuse & Neglect, 23, 715-727.
ABSTRACT Reviews the relationship among traumatic
emotional stress, hippocampal injury, memory loss,
and traumatic (dissociative) amnesia. A survey of
the research on emotional trauma, learning, memory
loss, glucocosteroid stress hormones, and the hippocampus
was conducted, and animal and human studies were reviewed.
It is well documented and has been experimentally
demonstrated in animals and humans that prolonged
and high levels of stress, fear, and arousal commonly
induce learning deficits and memory loss ranging from
the minimal to the profound. As stress and arousal
levels dramatically increase, learning and memory
deteriorate in accordance with the classic inverse
U-shaped curve. These memory deficits are due to disturbances
in hippocampal activation and arousal, and the corticosteroid
secretion, which can suppress neural activity associated
with learning and memory and induce hippocampal atrophy.
Risk and predisposing factors include a history of
previous emotional trauma or neurological injury involving
the temporal lobe and hippocampus, the repetitive
and prolonged nature of the trauma (i.e., sexual abuse),
and age and individual differences in baseline arousal
and level of cortisol.