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Paardekooper, B.; De Jong, J.T.V.M. and Hermanns, J.M.A.  (1999)
Department of Clinical and Health Psychology, Utrecht University, The Netherlands.
The Psychological Impact of War and the Refugee Situation on South Sudanese Children in Uganda.   
Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, Vol. 40, No. 4 (May 1999). pp.
Parker G, Roy K, Wilhelm K, Mitchell P, Austin MP, Hadzi-Pavlovic D (1999)
School of Psychiatry, University of New South Wales, Australia.
An exploration of links between early parenting experiences and personality disorder type and disordered personality functioning.
J Personal Disord 1999 Winter;13(4):361-74
ABSTRACT Reports of early parenting were assessed using two measures, the Parental Bonding Index (PBI) and the Measure of Parenting Style (MOPS), in a sample of 265 patients with DSM-defined major depressive disorder. Psychiatrists then rated the extent to which sample members evidenced the personality "styles" underpinning 15 separate personality disorders, returning personality vignette scores. The extent of disordered functioning was also assessed across "parameters" and "domains" by psychiatrists, referrers, and family members, using a range of measures. Those with higher scores on vignettes measuring borderline, anxious, depressive, and self-defeating personality style rated parents as uncaring, overcontrolling, and abusive. When vignettes were consolidated into scores akin to the DSM clusters, the most consistent links between perceived dysfunctional parenting were with the Cluster C (anxious), and Cluster B (dramatic) styles and were nonsignificant for Cluster A (eccentric) style. Meeting criteria for an increasing number of personality disorder clusters was associated with increasing levels of adverse parenting. Multiple regression analyses indicated that disordered functioning (as assessed by the three independent rater groups) was most distinctly associated with paternal indifference and maternal overcontrol.

Pasquini P, Liotti G, Mazzotti E, Fassone G, Picardi A (2002)
The Italian Group for the Study of Dissociation
Risk factors in the early family life of patients suffering from dissociative disorders
Acta Psychiatr Scand 2002: 105: 110-116

ABSTRACT Objective: To test the hypothesis that not only intrafamiliar childhood abuses inflicted to the patient, but also major losses or other severe life events suffered by the mother within 2 years of patient's birth, are risk factors for the development of dissociative disorders (DDs). Method: A multicentric case-control study of 52 cases and 146 controls. Results: We estimated a crude odds ratio (OR) of 2.6 (adjusted 1.9) for mothers' losses or other severe life events experienced within 2 years of patient's birth, and a crude OR of 7.6 (adjusted 7.2) for patient's early traumatic experiences. Conclusion: Mother's losses or other severe life events within 2 years of patient's birth and patient's traumatic experiences during childhood are risk factors for the development of dissociative disorders. A possible explanation of these findings is that disorganized or insecure attachment may increase susceptibility to traumatic experiences and propensity to dissociation in adult life.

Pederson, Cathy L; Maurer, Scott H; Kaminski, Patricia L; Zander, Kelly A; Peters, Christina M; Stokes-Crowe, Linda A; Osborn, Robin E. (2004)
Hippocampal Volume and Memory Performance in a Community-Based Sample of Women With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Secondary to Child Abuse.
Journal of Traumatic Stress. Vol 17(1) Feb 2004, 37-40.

ABSTRACT Childhood abuse is linked to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), which follows abuse survivors into adulthood. This study identified the neuropsychological and neuromorphological sequelae of PTSD among prepubescently abused women. Right-handed women aged 20-40 years were placed into PTSD and abuse, abuse only, and normal control groups (n = 17 per group). Participants were screened for trauma history and psychiatric symptoms, demographically matched, and given neuropsychological tests and a magnetic resonance scan of their brain. Women with PTSD did not express significant deficits in memory performance or hippocampal volume when compared with the abuse and normal control groups.

Peters ML, Uyterlinde SA, Consemulder J, van der Hart O (1998)
Department of Clinical and Health Psychology, Utrecht University, The Netherlands.
Apparent amnesia on experimental memory tests in dissociative identity disorder: an exploratory study.
Conscious Cogn 1998 Mar;7(1):27-41

ABSTRACT Explored memory function in dissociative identity disorder (DID), focusing on between-identity transfer of newly learned neutral material. A pilot study was conducted with 4 females with DID and 18 female controls. This study was specifically concerned with the question of whether self-reported asymmetries in between-identity transfer can be replicated on experimental memory tests. A secondary aim was to examine whether, in the absence of explicit transfer, implicit transfer of information would occur. The apparent amnestic asymmetry for explicit information was substantiated in the laboratory, although at least some leakage was present between the apparently amnestic identities. No evidence was found for better performance on implicit than on explicit memory tests in the apparently amnestic identities. Parallels between apparent amnesia in DID and state-dependent memory are drawn, and the question of simulated amnesia is addressed.

Pitman RK, Sanders KM, Zusman RM, Healy AR, Cheema F, Lasko NB, Cahill L, Orr SP. (2002)   
Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02129, USA.
Pilot study of secondary prevention of posttraumatic stress disorder with propranolol.
Biol Psychiatry. 2002 Jan 15;51(2):189-92

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Preclinical considerations suggest that treatment with a beta-adrenergic blocker following an acute psychologically traumatic event may reduce subsequent posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. This pilot study addressed this hypothesis. METHODS: Patients were randomized to begin, within 6 hours of the event, a 10-day course of double-blind propranolol (n = 18) versus placebo (n = 23) 40 mg four times daily. RESULTS: The mean (SD) 1-month Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) score of 11 propranolol completers was 27.6 (15.7), with one outlier 5.2 SDs above the others' mean, and of 20 placebo completers, 35.5 (21.5), t = 1.1, df = 29, p =.15. Two propranolol patients' scores fell above, and nine below, the placebo group's median, p =.03 (sign test). Zero of eight propranolol, but six of 14 placebo, patients were physiologic responders during script-driven imagery of the traumatic event when tested 3 months afterward, p =.04 (all p values one-tailed). CONCLUSIONS: These pilot results suggest that acute, posttrauma propranolol may have a preventive effect on subsequent PTSD.

Pope, Ken (2000)   
Pseudoscience, Cross-examination, and Scientific Evidence in the Recovered Memory Controversy
If you would like a reprint, send a request with the subject line "REQUEST PSEUDOSCIENCE CHAPTER" to
American Psychological Association's journal *Psychology, Public Policy, and Law*

ABSTRACT The recovered memory controversy is a contentious mix of conflicting claims, theories, and research. For example, reports of recovered memories of child sex abuse may be described as the result of implanting, false memory syndrome, repression, dissociation, motivated forgetting, directed forgetting, amnesia, betrayal trauma, retroactive inhibition, suggestion, self-induced hypnotic trance states, personality disorder, thought suppression, retrieval inhibition, cognitive gating, or biological protective processes. These terms may be used without clear definition or scientific basis, and may unintentionally foster pseudoscientific beliefs. Drawing on Daubert and other sources, this article suggests using 6 basic sets of cross-examination questions to assess the material in this area and to expose pseudoscience. These 6 questions focus on: (1) research basis, (2) unclear terms and deductive fallacies, (3) inferential errors and confirmation bias, (4) links in the chain of reasoning, (5) ad hominem fallacies, and (6) original sources

Pope HG Jr; Oliva PS; Hudson JI; Bodkin JA; Gruber AJ  (1999)   
Biological Psychiatry Laboratory, McLean Hospital, Belmont, MA 02178, USA.
Attitudes toward DSM-IV dissociative disorders diagnoses among board-certified American psychiatrists.
Am J Psychiatry, 156(2):321-3 1999 Feb

ABSTRACT Assessed the opinions of American psychiatrists regarding the diagnostic status and scientific validity of the Mental Disorders-IV (DSM-IV) categories of dissociative amnesia and dissociative identity disorder. A one-page questionnaire was mailed to a random national sample of 367 board-certified American psychiatrists. 301 responses were received--a rate of 82%. Only about one-third of respondent replied that dissociative amnesia and dissociative identity disorder should be included without reservations in DSM-IV; a larger proportion replied that these categories should be included only as proposed diagnoses. Only about one-quarter of respondents felt that diagnoses of dissociative amnesia and dissociative identity disorder were supported by strong evidence of scientific validity. It is concluded that among board-certified American psychiatrists, there currently appears to be little consensus regarding the diagnostic status or scientific validity of dissociative amnesia and dissociative identity disorder.

Poustovoyt, M.; S. Yevchuck,; I. Krasnopolska, A. Filz et al. (2000)    
Ivano-Frankivsk State Medical Academy-Ukraine . 
Clinical-experimental study of the dissociation in the neurotic hysterie.  
Acta Psychiatrica, Psychoterapeutica et Ethologica Tavrica / V.4, ? 1(12) 2000, p. 35-42.

ABSTRACT In the study a connection of “dissociation-neurotic hysteria” is examinated using the clinical and clinical-experimental approaches (DES and DDIS instruments were used). There were examinated 85 patients with the neurotic hysteria. (Because of practical using of the ICD-10 in Ukraine began from 1999 we used the diagnostic categories of ICD-9). It was established that a discrepancy exists between the number of dissociative disorders were found clinically (7% was qualified as hysteric-dissociative syndrome) and experimentally using the screening instrument DES (42,4% of a probable dissociative disorder with mean DES-score more than 20, and 17,2% of the definite dissociative disorder with mean score more than 30) and the semistructured interview DDIS (75,6% of the patient group could be qualified as having dissociative disorder but 51,2% - as having dissociative disorder without other specifications). A conclusion was made that the differences between the clinical and experimental methods could be explained by the existence of a specific dissociative pattern of the responding characteristic of the hysterical personality by classic psychiatric terminology (or a sort of borderline personality and the hystrionic personality by the new psychiatric systhematics).

Poustovoyt, M.; S. Yevchuck,; I. Krasnopolska, A. Filz et al. (2000)
Ivano-Frankivsk State Medical Academy- Ukraine 
Epidemiology of the dissociative disorders in the conventionally healthy persons’ population.
Acta Psychiatrica, Psychoterapeutica et Ethologica Tavrica / V.5, ? 2(13) 2000.

ABSTRACT In the study the prevalence of the dissociative disorders in the conventionally healthy persons population is studied by the screening method using Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES). Object: A group of 1056 respondents what consists of three subgroups:
I. - 100 workers of the sewing industry;
II. - 534 workers of the chemical industry;
III. - 222 medical students.
Methods and instruments: Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES) is the most often used basic instrument for the experimental studies of dissociative disorders. Results: A mean DES-score in the whole group of 1056 respondents was 10,5 ± 9,6 (M ± s). 12,7% of respondents had mean DES-scores more than 20 and 4,3% of respondents had mean DES-scores more than 30. Such a result is statistically comparable with data of an analogous study was conducted by C.A. Ross (1990). Conclusion: Expected prevalence of the dissociative disorders in the conventionally healthy persons' population (by the DES-scores) is within the limits from 4,3% to 12,7%. The instrument of DES has a transcultural validity and can be used to study of dissociation in Ukraine.

Poustovoyt, M.; S. Yevchuck,; I. Krasnopolska, A. Filz et al. (1999)   
Ivano-Frankivsk State Medical Academy- Ukraine
Actual questions of clinic of the neurotic hysteria.
Halych Medical News / V. 10, ? 4, 1999.

ABSTRACT Summary: There were examinated 90 patients (17 male and 73 female) in age from 16 to 57 years. The group was consisted of all the in-patients of the psychiatric department of neurosis who entered the hospital during the 1997 year with diagnoses 'hysterical neurosis' and “personality disorder of hysterical circle'. It was established the typology of the basic hysteria’s syndromes representing five 'classic'' types: hysteric-conversion, hysteric-depressive, hysteric-hypochondrial, hysteric-anxious, and hysteric-dissociative. The dissociative disorders take an insignificant place in a structure of the hysteric neurotical disorders qualified clinically. Key words: hysteria, conversion hysteria, anxious hysteria, hysteric hypochondria, hysteric depression, dissociative hysteria.

Powell RA, Gee TL (1999)
Psychology Faculty, Dept. of Social Sciences, Grant MacEwan College, Edmonton, Alberta, USA
The effects of hypnosis on dissociative identity disorder: a reexamination of the evidence.   
Can J Psychiatry 1999 Nov;44(9):914-6   

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To examine the possibility that hypnosis has significant iatrogenic effects on dissociative identity disorder (DID). METHOD: This paper reexamines previously published data that have been interpreted as indicating that hypnosis does not exert significant iatrogenic effects on DID. RESULTS: The use of hypnosis is associated with differences in DID phenomenology and number of DID patients in treatment. CONCLUSION: Hypnosis may have significant iatrogenic effects on DID. 

Pribram, K.H. (1999).   
The self as me and I
Consciousness & Cognition: an International Journal, 8, 385-386.

ABSTRACT Comments on the article by K. Vogeley et al (see record 1999-11900-006), which neurophysiologically related dysfunctional self-modelling activities with schizophrenia. The excellent article agrees with the basic points of a prior article of the author (1970). However, the article attempts to localize brain areas of self-modelling that are not particularly congruent with research findings.

Prohl J, Resch F, Parzer P, Brunner R. (2001).   
Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, University of Heidelberg, Germany
Relationship between dissociative symptomatology and declarative and procedural memory in adolescent psychiatric patients.
J Nerv Ment Dis 2001 Sep;189(9):602-7

ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between dissociative symptomatology and declarative and procedural memory. Subjects were 41 consecutively admitted adolescent psychiatric patients, 13 to 19 years old. Each subject completed the Adolescent Dissociative Experiences Scale (A-DES). Declarative memory was assessed by the California Verbal Learning Test and procedural memory by the Tower of Toronto puzzle. All subjects were controlled for IQ and severity of psychiatric illness. Data analysis was done by multiple regression. Multiple regression analysis revealed a model in which 71% variance of the A-DES scores was explained by psychiatric illness and specific memory variables. This study confirms a strong interrelationship between clinical dissociation and severity of psychiatric illness. Moreover, clinical dissociation seems to be associated with specific memory dysfunctions, indicating that dissociation exerts an impact on basic information processing.

Prueter C, Schultz-Venrath U, Rimpau W. (2002)
Dissociative and associated psychopathological symptoms in patients with epilepsy, pseudoseizures, and both seizure forms.
Epilepsia. 2002 Feb;43(2):188-92.

ABSTRACT PURPOSE: A controversy currently exists regarding the significance of dissociation and conversion in the pathogenesis of pseudoepileptic seizures. After the abolition of the term "hysterical neurosis" from the current diagnostic systems, these seizures were diagnosed as either Dissociative Disorders (ICD-10) or in the DSM IV as Somatoform disorder, most often of conversion type. Recent studies of patients with Dissociative Disorders found that most patients also had conversion symptoms. METHODS: In the present study, 60 patients of an outpatient clinic for epilepsy were assessed for the presence of dissociative symptoms and general psychopathologic symptoms by using the German version of the Dissociative Experience Scale (DES) and the Symptom Check List (SCL-90-R). RESULTS: The patients with pseudoepileptic seizures showed a significantly higher incidence of dissociation (p < 0.0098) and general psychopathologic symptoms (p < 0.0083). Depression, anxiety, and obsession were dominating psychopathologic symptoms in all patients. CONCLUSIONS: The significantly higher incidence of dissociation in the patients with pseudoepileptic seizures suggests dissociation in the pathogenesis of these seizures.

Punamäki, Raija-Leena; Katri Kanninen , Samir Qouta , Eyad El-Sarraj (2002).   
The role of psychological defences in moderating between trauma and post-traumatic symptoms among Palestinian men
International Journal of Psychology Issue: Volume 37, Number 5/October 01, 2002 Pages: 286 - 296

ABSTRACT Psychological defences are conceptualized as protective processes that help individuals to maintain their integrity in the face of threat and danger. Accordingly, their role in defending trauma victims from post-traumatic symptoms was examined. The sample consisted of 128 Palestinian male political ex-prisoners who had reported various degrees of torture and ill-treatment. The first aim was to analyze the dimensionality and distribution of different defence mechanisms. The second was to examine which defences would moderate the association between the reported torture and ill-treatment and the post-traumatic symptoms (PTS). Third, the direct associations between reported torture and ill-treatment and defences and between the defences and symptoms were explored. Defence mechanisms were assessed by a 40-item version of the Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ), and Post-traumatic symptoms by the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ), and experiences of torture and ill-treatment by a scale developed for that purpose. The results show, first, that the men used predominantly mature defences such as anticipation, sublimation, suppression, and rationalization, but also relatively frequently somatization and dissociation, which are characteristic responses among trauma victims. Second, the principal component analysis revealed four defence dimensions, differentiated by the level of maturity and the approach to reality: the mature reality-based, the consciousness-limiting, the immature reality-escaping, and the immature reality-distorting defences. Third, against our hypothesis, the moderating analyses indicated that the reported torture and ill-treatment were relatively more associated with vigilance, avoidance, and intrusion symptoms if men used consciousness-limiting defences. Yet as expected, the mature reality-based defences did not show a protective effect. Furthermore, a high level of reported torture and ill-treatment was associated with a low level of the mature reality-based defences, but not with a high level of immature defences. Last, similarly to earlier studies, the immature reality-distorting and immature reality-escaping defences associated directly with high, and mature reality-based defences with low, levels of PTS-symptoms
Putnam, Frank W. (2001).   
Reclaiming dissociative diagnoses
Journal of Trauma and Dissociation (ISSN: 1529-9732), v. 2, no. 1, pp. 47-49 (2001).
ABSTRACT The reasons DID has remained virtually frozen in time are political -- although the nature of the agendas have changed over time. Having served on the DSM-III-R and DSM-IV dissociative disorder subcommittees and been a reviewer for the DSM-IV Revised Text, I have had the opportunity to witness the politics first hand. I wish to briefly recount how things came to be the way they are in hopes that the past process can inform future efforts. [Adapted from Text, p. 47]